Syphilis is a serious STI caused by the bacterium treponema pallidum.
Also known as the clap, is caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
It is caused by bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. It is a common STI in Hong Kong.
If timely treatment is not sought, it can lead to serious complications such as salpingitis, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID).
It is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). However, there are many strains of HPV viruses and not all of them cause genital warts. HPV 6 and 11 are linked to approximately 90 percent of genital warts. They are transmitted through direct contact to the patient’s skin. Moreover, condoms cannot provide complete protection from HPV. If the rash is located in places not protected by the condom, the infection can spread from contact.
It is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Genital herpes are caused by contact to open sores caused by the virus. It is usually spread through sexual contacts, and the sharing of sex toys. Moreover, condoms cannot provide complete protection from HSV. If the rash is located in places not covered by the condom, the infection can spread from contact.
Women who have contracted the virus will usually pass on the infection to the baby during birth. It can cause damage to multiple organs and the central nervous system, or even death. Most patients will experience recurrences and some recurrences may happen years after the first occurrence.
Also known as crab louse, pthirus pubis is a parasite that infests the hairs and skin of the pubic regions. They usually latch onto pubic hairs and can be transmitted through sexual contacts. It can also be transmitted by sharing clothes and beddings with an infected person. The parasites cannot jump or fly and can only move between hairs. They can only stay alive consuming human blood. Thus, when it leaves a host, it must latch onto another host to survive.
It is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called trichomonas vaginalis. It is transmitted through direct contact with the infected patient. The most commonly infected area is the genital (e.g., vaginal opening, vaginal canal, cervix, or urethra). Infections in other body parts (e.g., hands, mouth, anus) are not common. Moreover, it can also affect new-born’s health through mother-to-child contact.
Hepatitis A does not lead to chronic liver disease and is rarely fatal. However, it can also lead to symptoms of weakness and fatal acute liver failure.
It is caused by the Hepatitis B virus. The virus damages the liver and can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, failure and cancer.
It is caused by the Hepatitis C virus. Most people cannot completely suppress the virus. In the long-term, it can cause liver damage. Similar to Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, failure and cancer.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are primarily caused by bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections. They are mainly transmitted through sexual contacts (including vaginal and anal intercourse, as well as oral sex). They can also be transmitted through blood transfusion and from mother-to-child. Although treatments are available for many STIs, they can cause severe and even fatal consequences if they are not discovered and treated in a timely manner. Mother-to-child infections can lead to grave consequences such as causing birth defects of varying severity.
Overview of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs):