Modes of Transmission

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse (vaginal and anal): Unprotected sex means having anal or vaginal intercourse and oral sex without using a condom. The virus may enter through body fluids, semen, tip of penis or mucus membrane within the vagina, however, HIV cannot be transmitted through sweat and saliva.
  • Mother-to-child: HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections (e.g. syphilis, genital warts) can be transmitted from an infected woman to her child during pregnancy, childbirth (also called labour and delivery), or breastfeeding. 
  • Blood and blood products: HIV can be transmitted through contact with blood, e.g. blood transfusion, reusing or sharing of needle, razor blade, or other sharp objects with an infected person. Even if a needle or a sharp object appears to be clean to the naked eyes, it can still contain bacteria and viruses. Therefore, we should never reuse a needle or syringe . And if it is necessary to make wound on body such as piercing, reliable professionals should be asked to handle the related work.