The uterus is located in the middle of the lower abdomen, a pear-shaped organ behind the bladder and in front of the rectum. The left and right sides of the upper portion are connected to the fallopian tubes, and the lower portion is connected to the vagina. The uterus has two tendons that connect the ovaries, and it is made up primarily of muscular tissue. On the inside of the uterus lines the mucus membrane called endometrium.
The cervix connects the vagina to the uterus. It secretes thick discharge to block infection and semen. It is a vital organ of the reproductive system.
If you are not pregnant
The endometrium sheds if the egg does not become fertilised, which leads to bleeding, also known as menstruation. Blood leaves the uterus from the cervix to the vagina.
If you are pregnant
When the egg becomes fertilised, the cervix opens and closes to ensure the baby grows and leaves the uterus successfully.
As the baby grows in the uterus, the uterus expands as well. However, the cervix remains closed to ensure that the baby can grow safely inside the womb. When it comes the time to deliver the baby, the cervix softens and expands. The opening of the uterus opens from 0.5 cm to 10 cm to allow the baby to pass through the cervix. Therefore, for babies delivered through natural births, they must all travel through the cervix.
The cervix is susceptible to cell changes induced by HPV infections, which in severe cases can lead to cancer. Therefore, it is imperative to undergo a Pap smear test every year to detect and treat the early changes before they turn into cancer.
The ovaries are two small organs, located on both sides of the uterus, that somewhat look like a bunch of grapes. The ovaries have two main functions, one is to produce the egg (or egg cells) for fertilisation, and the second is to produce female reproductive hormones (mainly estrogen).
Fallopian tubes are located within the pelvic region with one on each side. They connect the ovaries to the uterus. Their main functions are to deliver semen, eggs, and fertilised egg.
The urethra, which sits behind the clitoris, is where the urine leaves the body. Bacteria can easily enter into the urinary tract during sexual intercourse and cause infection as the urethra is short and straight and is situated between the clitoris and the vaginal opening.
The vaginal opening is right below the urethra. It is a muscular and elastic canal, which is composed of mucosa, muscle and an outer membrane. It connects the uterus and the external genitalia. It is a female sex organ that lets blood flow out from the uterus during menstruation and becomes the birth canal where the baby must pass through during natural childbirth.
Anus is at the end of the digestive system tract, extending from the rectum to the opening of the body. It is also known as the exhaust of the digestive system where solid waste matter leaves the body.